Panchanan Maheswari was a prominent Indian botanist noted chiefly for his invention of the technique of test-tube fertilization of angiosperms.
His invention has allowed the creation of new hybrid plants that could not previously be crossbred naturally.
He taught Botany at the University of Delhi, establishing that department as a globally important center of research in embryology and tissue culture. In 1951, he founded the International Society of Plant Morphologists. In 1934 he became a fellow of the India Academy of Sciences – Bangalore. The Indian Botanical Society honoured him with the Birbal Sahni Medal in 1958.
He was the General President-elect of the Indian Science Congress Association for 1968, a role he could not fulfill on account of his untimely death on 18 May 1966.